Satellite TV broadcasts audio and video signals from satellites to dishes on the earth. The geostationary satellites orbit the earth in a space region called as Clarke Belt, which is around 22,300 miles over the equator. All of these satellites have a lot of transponders. Each of these transponders carries a signal to the earth. Typically, these signals are on Ku Band, C Band, and Ka Band. In broad terms, the band of signal describes frequency.
These signals travel over 20000 miles to the satellite dish. The dish can be larger than 9’ or 18” across. The dish serves as a reflector and collector. It collects signals and reflects the same to the feedhorn, which receives the signal and sends to LNB. It amplifies signal and transforms it into the frequency for transmission to the cable, which is known as IFL, in satellite terminology. Then the signal is sent to the Satellite TV from the receiver.
Digital Satellite TV
These days, most satellite TVs are encoded digitally. This way, broadcasters can provide more TV channels with same satellite bandwidth. One can get satellite TV in both SD resolution and in HDTV ATSC format. Traditionally, digital data was compressed to MPEG2. Currently, it has been replaced by MPEG4 in some networks.
Options Available for Satellite TV
Lots of vendors are known to operate satellite TV networks across the world. For satellite TV, the options available vary according to the country you live in. Along with it, some services are specific to only large cities. In the US, DirecTV and Dish Network are the two largest satellite TV providers. Both of them provide programming on Ka and Ku bands. Along with it, Superstar and National Programming Service work on C Band to offer programming. Some of the satellite TV channels are available at low cost.